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doi:?10.1126/science.aad5227. functions (12C16). Recently, the CRISPR system have been developed and the convenience of design, construction, and delivery of sgRNAs offered an excellent possibility of rapid genome editing in autophagy study via targeting Atgs using CRISPR system. Here, we reviewed the very UNC569 recent study of the novel genome editing tool CRISPR in knockout of autophagy genes and reported our partial date in order to elaborate the important role of CRISPR in autophagy research. THE CRISPR STORY History of CRISPR CRISPR systems have created a profound and lasting effect ever since it was established as the latest genome editing tool along with past technologies like meganucleases, ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR clustered repeats was first discovered UNC569 in 1987 while Nakata and team were working on the IAP enzyme in and a set of 29-nt repeats downstream of the gene was found (17). In 2002, Jansen and Mojica collectively described the genomic loci of microbials which consists of an interspaced repeat array with the term CRISPR (18). The research on CRISPR was at its crux in 2005 when further analyse on spacer sequences that separate each direct repeats resulted in the conclusion that they were of extra chromosomal and phage-related nature (19). By 2010, the functional mechanism of the natural Type II CRISPR system was better understood to construct an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease for genome editing. Cas9 is the sole enzyme within the gene array to exert nucleolytic activity on DNA (20). Together with this data, a non-coding trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) which hybridizes with crRNA to facilitate RNA-guided targeting of Cas9 has been to be the key component in crRNA biogenesis and processing in Type II CRISPR system (21). Later in 2012, it was shown that crRNA-guided cleavage by purified Cas9 was possible (22) and that a single guide RNA (sgRNA) could be designed by joining a crRNA containing the guide sequence to a tracrRNA (23) which aids DNA cleavage by Cas9. Currently, multiple guide RNAs could UNC569 also be designed to target multiple genes at once for genome editing with UNC569 high efficiency (24). Many open-source distributors and online user forums have helped to advance the Cas9 technology as well. Types of CRISPR/Cas system The CRISPR adaptive immune system and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems which originated from bacterial and archaeal hosts (25) primarily function as an immune system that cleaves exogenous DNA (26) or RNA (27) via an RNA-guided nuclease. Therefore, this UNC569 serves to protect the bacterial and archaeal hosts from invading viruses or plasmids. CRISPR systems have been classified into three major types (Table 1) based on their genetic content, structural and functional differences whereby the key differences among the three is established by the Cas genes and encode proteins (28). However, among the three, the Type II CRISPR system is the best characterized (29) which comprises of the nuclease Cas9, the crRNA array and an ancillary trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA). Table 1 3 Major types of CRISPR CSNK1E systems Cas9 (SpCas9 for short) has two lobes; recognition (REC) lobe and nuclease (NUC) lobe (30). The variable, -helical REC lobe is composed of three regions as follows: a long.