Both authors approved the final version of the manuscript
Both authors approved the final version of the manuscript. Funding This study was supported from the Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition. those 50 years old. Further analysis in subjects aged 50 years showed the seroprevalence of anti- em Toxoplasma /em IgG antibodies was also significantly higher in individuals with hernia restoration than those without hernia (OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.10-6.57). Matching by age and sex further showed the seroprevalence of em Toxoplasma /em illness was significantly higher in individuals with hernia restoration than those without hernia (OR: 4.50; 95% CI: 1.22-17.33). Conclusions Results indicate that illness with em Toxoplasma /em is definitely associated with abdominal hernia. The contributing role of illness with em Toxoplasma /em in abdominal hernia was observed mainly in subjects aged 50 years old. Our results might have medical, prevention and treatment implications and warrant for further investigation. Findings The protozoan parasite em Toxoplasma gondii /em ( em T. gondii /em ) is definitely widely distributed around the world [1,2]. Human infections with em T. gondii /em happen by ingesting food or water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by pet cats ZM-241385 or by eating undercooked or uncooked meat containing cells cysts [2-4]. Infections with em T. gondii /em may result in an asymptomatic state or lead to disease. The parasite disseminates within the host’s body and may impact lymph nodes, eyes, central nervous system, and other cells [3,5-9]. In addition, main illness during pregnancy may lead to severe damage to the fetus [2,3]. We have explored ZM-241385 the seroprevalence of and risk factors for em T. gondii /em illness in some healthy [10-12] and ill [13-16] populations in Durango, Mexico. In a recent study in liver disease patients, we reported that subjects with abdominal hernia restoration showed a significantly higher seroprevalence of em T. gondii /em illness than individuals without hernia . Consequently, we wanted to determine whether the seroprevalence of em T. gondii /em illness and anti- em T. gondii /em IgG levels are associated with a history of abdominal hernia restoration in subjects of the general human population in Durango, Mexico. Furthermore, we investigated socio-demographic, medical, and behavioral characteristics associated with em T. gondii /em seropositivity in subjects with abdominal hernia restoration. Through a retrospective, observational study design, we analyzed 1156 subjects of the general human population of Durango City, Mexico that were examined for em T. gondii /em antibodies in our Faculty of Medicine from January 2009 to December 2010. Of the 1156 subjects, 55 had a history of abdominal hernia restoration while 1101 subjects did not statement any suffering from abdominal hernia or having experienced any abdominal hernia restoration. Socio-demographic, medical and behavioral characteristics of the participants were obtained with the aid of a standardized questionnaire Rabbit Polyclonal to CaMK1-beta and kept in records. Socio-demographic data included age, gender, place of birth, place of residence, residence area (urban, suburban, rural), educational level, socioeconomic status, and profession. Clinical ZM-241385 data included the presence of diseases, presence or history of lymphadenopathy, frequent presence of headache; history of blood transfusion, transplant, or surgery; and memory space, reflex, hearing, and visual impairments. Behavioral data included animal contacts, contact with cat feces, touring in Mexico and abroad, meat consumption (pork, beef, goat, sheep, boar, chicken, turkey, pigeon, rabbit, venison, squirrel, horse, opossum, or additional), degree of meat cooking, usage of unpasteurized milk, dried or cured meat (ham, sausages, salami or chorizo), unwashed uncooked vegetables, fruits, or untreated water, rate of recurrence of eating out of home (at restaurants or fast food outlets), contact with dirt (gardening or agriculture), and type of floors at home. Sera were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods for anti- em T. gondii /em IgG antibodies with the commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit ” em Toxoplasma /em IgG” (International Immuno-Diagnostics, Foster City, California). Anti- em T. gondii /em IgG antibody levels were indicated as International Devices (IU)/ml, and a result equivalent or greater than 8 ZM-241385 IU/ml was regarded as positive. In addition, sera positive for anti- em T. gondii /em IgG antibodies were further analyzed for anti- em T. gondii /em IgM antibodies from the commercially available enzyme immunoassay ” em Toxoplasma /em IgM” kit (International Immuno-Diagnostics). All checks were performed following a instructions of the manufacturer. This study was authorized by the Institutional Honest Committee of the Institute of Security and Social Solutions of the State Workers in Durango City. Results were analyzed with the aid of the software Epi Info version 3.5.1 and SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois). ZM-241385 For assessment of the frequencies among organizations, the Fisher precise test was used..